masakan ayam broiler.
Ayam broiler penyet. Sumber: blog.bambang.com.

Daging ayam broiler dan ayam kampung sama-sama mempunyai kandungan gizi yang tinggi dan sumber protein yang baik untuk tubuh kita. Yang berbeda, kandungan lemak ayam broiler lebih tinggi dari ayam kampung. Meski demikian, kandungan lemak daging ayam broiler masih lebih rendah dari daging sapi.

Setiap konsumen berhak untuk memilih mengonsumsi daging ayam broiler atau daging ayam kampung.

Lantas, bagaimana membedakan daging ayam broiler dan ayam kampung. Ada 7 cara untuk membedakan kedua jenis daging ayam tersebut, yaitu dari segi tekstur, ukuran, kulit, warna, nutrisi, cita rasa, dan harga.

Tekstur

Tekstur daging ayam broiler lebih empuk sehingga lebih mudah dimasak dan dicerna. Sementara tekstur daging ayam kampung lebih padat sehingga diperlukan waktu yang lebih lama untuk dimasak sampai empuk.

Masakan ayam kampung.
Ayam kampung goreng. Sumber: tribunnews.com.

Tekstur ini ada kaitannya dengan pemeliharaan dan faktor genetik. Ayam broiler lebih banyak dipelihara di kandang (intensif) sehingga kurang banyak bergerak. Sementara ayam kampung lebih banyak dipelihara dengan diumbar mencari makan sendiri dan semi intensif sehingga ayam kampung lebih banyak bergerak.

Ukuran

Ukuran daging ayam broiler lebih besar dan tebal dari ayam kampung. Ayam broiler yang dipanen pada umur 30-35 hari bobot hidupnya mencapai 1.500-2.000 gram per ekor. Sementara ayam kampung yang dipanen pada umur 60-90 hari bobot hidupnya hanya sekitar 800 gram per ekor dan dagingnya lebih tipis.

Ayam broiler lebih cepat besar dibanding ayam kampung bukan karena menggunakan hormon seperti yang diisukan selama ini, tapi karena faktor genetik. Untuk menghasilkan ayam broiler yang cepat tumbuh, diperlukan penelitian selama puluhan tahun sehingga menghasilkan bibit ayam broiler yang lebih bagus.

Mengenal karkas ayam broiler.
Karkas ayam broiler. Sumber: bukalapak.com.

Memang sebelum 1980, untuk mempercepat pertumbuhan ayam broiler ada peternak yang menyuntikan hormon. Tetapi sejak tahun tersebut penyuntikan hormon sudah dilarang pemerintah. Apalagi harga hormon relatif mahal. Bisa bangkrut peternak kalau masih ngotot menggunakan hormon untuk memacu pertumbuhan. Karena itulah masyarakat tidak perlu khawatir untuk mengonsumsi daging ayam broiler.

Kulit

Kulit daging ayam broiler lebih mudah sobek dan licin karena banyak mengandung lemak, sementara kulit daging ayam kampung lebih kenyal dan tidak mudah sobek ketika disentuh dengan tangan atau benda.

Warna

Warna daging ayam broiler cenderung putih kemerahan, sementara daging ayam kampung cenderung lebih gelap. Perbedaan ini karena faktor genetik, pakan, cara pemeliharaan, dan lama pemeliharaannya.

Mengenal karkas ayam kampung.
Karkas ayam kampung. Sumber: bbpkhcinagara.bppsdmp.pertanian.go.id.

Nutrisi

Setiap 100 gram ayam broiler mengandung 295 kkal energi, 37 gram protein, dan 14,7 gram lemak. Sementara setiap 100 gram daging ayam kampung mengandung 246 kkal energi, 37,9 gram protein, dan 9 gram lemak. Keunggulan daging ayam kampung adalah kaya zat besi dibandingkan daging ayam broiler.

Bila dilihat dari kandungan nutrisi tersebut di atas, daging ayam broiler lebih banyak menghasilkan energi dari ayam kampung, namun juga lebih banyak mengandung lemak, terutama di bagian bawah kulitnya.

Tetapi, apapun jenis daging ayam yang Anda pilih, daging ayam broiler dan ayam kampung merupakan sumber protein yang baik bagi tubuh kita. Lihat! Kandungan protein kedua daging ayam tersebut hampir mirip.

Mengenal ayam broiler di kandang.
Ayam broiler di kandang. Sumber: indiamart.com.

Cita rasa

Sebenarnya cita rasa daging ayam broiler dan ayam kampung tidak banyak berbeda. Dengan bumbu yang sama, maka bumbu akan meresap sehingga cita rasa kedua daging ayam tersebut hampir mirip. Tapi ada yang mengatakan daging ayam kampung lebih gurih, sementara ayam broiler lebih juicy.

Harga

Meski ayam broiler lebih besar dari ayam kampung, tapi ayam kampung lebih mahal dibanding ayam broiler. Hal ini bisa dimengerti. Waktu pemeliharaan ayam broiler sekitar 30-35 hari sampai siap panen, sementara waktu pemeliharaan ayam kampung 60-90 hari sampai siap panen.

Ayam Kampung Unggul.
Ayam Kampung Unggul Balitbangtan. Sumber: Balitbangtan.

Jadi, dari ketujuh komponen di atas, memang ada beberapa perbedaan antara daging ayam broiler dan ayam kampung. Tetapi daging ayam apapun yang Anda pilih, kedua jenis ayam tersebut adalah sumber protein yang baik bagi tubuh kita. Anda boleh memilih ayam broiler atau ayam kampung sesuai selera.

Andre Indratama

Referensi:

  1. https://www.medion.co.id/id/kapan-sebaiknya-ayam-broiler-dipanen/.
  2. https://badungkab.go.id/instansi/diperpa/baca-artikel/28/Panduan-Umum-Cara-Ternak-Ayam-Kampung.html.
  3. https://hellosehat.com/hidup-sehat/nutrisi/daging-ayam-negeri-ayam-kampung/.
  4. https://www.klikdokter.com/info-sehat/read/3627268/mana-lebih-sehat-konsumsi-ayam-kampung-atau-ayam-negeri.
  5. https://resepkoki.id/5-cara-membedakan-ayam-kampung-dan-ayam-broiler/.
  6. https://pergikuliner.com/blog/ayam-kampung-vs-ayam-broiler-apa-bedanya.
Kumpulan artikel daging ayam.

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